Earth and its Extremities


Earth and its Extremities

Our planet Earth – stand third in the solar system of the Milky Way Galaxy. Earth also known for its ability to accommodate life and provide required atmosphere, environment, minerals and elements that were necessary for life on Earth. Earth is also believed to be formed in around four and a half billion years ago and its aphelion is around 152,098,232 km.

These are some of the mainstream facts that we all know about our planet. But there are some interesting things about Earth that are yet not in much light. Abode of billions and millions of living creatures, the Earth also has many other magnificent qualities that are yet hidden from mankind.

From our school lessons in Geography, we have been reading about the structure of the Earth, its atmosphere, its landscapes and all other biodiversity present on it. We have also read about the uniqueness of places like Arctic and Antarctic, Dead Sea and the Barrier Reef and many such places. All these names of places are brought into our notice due to the fact that they stand out in comparison to other places on Earth.

But there are yet many extremes on Earth that are not brought into focus. Here is an insight into some of the Extremes of Earth.

The Extreme Elevations (per continent, above sea level)

The Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Africa are one of the most elevated places on Earth. The height recorded is around 5893m which is 19,334 ft.

Vinson Massif in Antarctica is around 4892m in height that is approximately 16,050 ft.

In Asia, the highest elevation is of course the Mount Everest situated at the China-Nepal Border. The majestic Himalayas stand at height of 8848m or 29,029 ft.


In Europe, the Mount Elbrus is the highest elevation point with 5642 m or 18,510 ft.

North America’s Mount McKinley is the highest elevation which is around 20,236 ft. and is situated in Alaska, U.S.A

In South America, Aconcagua situated in Argentina is the highest elevation point which is of 22,841 ft.

Oceania including Australia has the highest elevation point at Puncak Jaya in Indonesia. Its height is 4884 m or 16,024 ft.

The Extreme Depths (per continent, below sea level)

Lake Assal of Djibouti in Africa is the deepest with depth of -155m or -509 ft.

The Deep Lake in Vestfold Hills of Antarctica is -50 m in depth or -164 ft. in depth.

The Dead Sea Shore located at Israel-West Bank-Jordan is the deepest in Asia with depth of -424m or -1,391 ft.

Dead Sea Shore

Caspian Sea Shore of Russian Federation in Europe is deepest with depth of about -28 m or -92 ft.

In North America, Death Valley of California U.S.A is -282 ft. in depth.

Laguna del Carbon in South America is deepest with depth of -105 m or -344 ft.

Lake Eyre of South Australia is deepest -15 m that is around -49 ft.


Next section is a record of the extreme temperature (maximum and minimum) continent-wise.

Extreme Temperatures

The extreme temperature of Africa is 55 degrees to -23.9 degrees (in Celsius). Maximum is in Kebili in Tunisia and minimum is in Ifrane, Morocco.

In Antarctica the extreme temperatures goes to 15 degrees maximum to minimum of -89.2 degrees. The maximum temperature is recorded in Vanda Station and the minimum at Vostok Station.

In Asia, in Dasht-e-Lut in Iran the maximum temperature goes to around 53.6 degrees to 54 degrees. The minimum temperature recorded is -67.8 degrees in Verkhoyansk, Siberia, Russia.

In Europe, the maximum temperature goes up to 48 degrees in Athens, Greece. And the minimum temperature recorded is -58.1 degrees in Ust-Shchuger of Russia Federation.

Maximum Temperature recorded in North America is at Death Valley, California, U.S.A to be around 56.7 degrees and the minimum is -66 degrees in North Ice, Greenland.

Death Valley, California

Rivadavia, Argentina situated in South America, the highest temperature goes to around 48.9 degrees and the minimum is -32.8 degrees in Sarmiento, Argentina.

Bourke, Australia has the maximum temperature of 53 degrees and -23 degrees in Charlotte Pass, Australia. These are the extreme temperatures of Oceania including Australia.

The next section deals with the extreme vertical drops present on Earth.

Greatest Vertical Drop

The greatest purely vertical drop present on Earth is of Mount Thor. With the altitude of 1,250 m situated in Baffin Island, Canada its summit elevation is 1,675 m.

The greatest nearly vertical drop is at Trango Towers, Pakistan with summit elevation of 6,286 m or 20,623 ft.

Trango Towers, Pakistan


Next are some of the extremities of the subterranean on Earth.

Extreme Subterranean

Deepest mine is present in the Mponeng Gold mine in South Africa. Its depth is 4000 m.

Deepest mine under the sea level is recorded to be Kide Mine in Ontario, Canada. Its depth is 2,733 m under sea level.

Deepest open-pit mine is the Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah, U.S.A with 1,200 m.

Earth’s deepest cave is Voronya Cave of Georgia with depth of 2,193 m.

And, the deepest pitch is Vrtoglavica Cave of Slovenia with 603 m or 1,978 ft.


Coldest and hottest inhabited places on Earth

After discussing the extreme temperatures of Earth, one might get a brief understanding about the climatic conditions across the globe. But the coldest and hottest inhabited places on Earth are different.

The coldest place on Earth which is inhabited by humans is Oymyakon in Russia, part of the Sakha Republic, situated near the river Indigirka. Here, the average temperature recorded in the coldest month of January is -50 degrees Celsius.

The hottest place on Earth is Dallol in Ethiopia, where the daily maximum temperature recorded in 1960-1966 was around 41 degrees.

But with the effect of global warming, the worldwide temperature is increasing in all the continents.


These are just some of the extremities of Earth.

Apart from all these, Earth is blessed with the magnificent gift of life which is unique to Earth. But the sad part is that this beautiful planet is now under a regular threat due to humans.

The biodiversity on Earth, the flora and fauna and the scenic beauty and all the pristine life on Earth needs to be protected, saved and preserved for the future generations.


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